## Transcript of 010.AVI (Lecture 10)

By Eckhard M.S. Hitzer, University of Fukui, Prof. Ryosuke Nagaoka (University of the Air, Japan)

So please have a look at the screen here. And the yellow construction, which you see here is a double cone.

... Prof. Nagaoka ...

Then you see a light green plane, which is intersecting the cone. And the lines of intersection in this position are two hyperbolas. Now we can ...

... Prof. Nagaoka ...

And now we can rotate this plane and see all the various quadratic curves appear as intersection lines. So here we have the parabola. And now we are changing more and more to an ellipse, and if it is like this it is a circle. And we go again back to a hyperbola.

Next I want to show you how you can make in another kind of graphics, ... with polar coordinates you can also describe the quadratic curves. Here you see two lines. This is the line which has the point O ("oh") as a focus, and another line, which is called the directrix and it has the distance d. Every point on the quadratic curve has the name P and the distance r from the focus. And between the blue line and r we have the angle theta. And every quadratic curve is described by this formula. That the distance from the focal point O is the socalled constant here, e for excentricity, times d, which is this distance here, divided by one plus e (the same constant e, which we had here) times the cosine of theta.

And depending on the value of the excentricity,
if it is between zero and one, we get an ellipse,
if it is just equal one, we have a parabola,
and if e is larger than one, we get hyperbolas.

So now I want to show you a computer graphics, which realizes this as well. Here we have a value of the excentricity, which is between zero and one, so it is exactly an ellipse.

... Prof. Nagaoka ...

Now we increase it and just as it becomes one, we have the parabola. And if we continue to increase the excentricity, we get another hyperbola half coming down from the top. And you see the two halves of the hyperbola appear. So just by varying the excentricity, we can show all different quadratic curves in one formula.

Thank you.

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Soli Deo Gloria. Created by Eckhard Hitzer (Fukui).